• Research resultsResearch and development of ecologic biogenic fuel and grease from domestic renewable sources and renewable raw material, in particular

    Research and development of ecologic biogenic fuel and grease from domestic renewable sources and renewable raw material, in particular

    Project leader:
    Doc. Ing. Ján Cvengroš, DrSc.

    Deputy project leader:
    Ing. Dušan Stacho

    Cooperating organizations:
    Slovnaft VÚRUP, a.s., Bratislava
    FCHPT STU Bratislava
    DAMT-MDT, a.s., Martin
    Ekoil Biodiesel, s.r.o., Bratislava
    Žilinská univeriza, Žilina
    Ecoinstrument, Bratislava

    Year of begin: 2003
    Year of finish: 2005

    Project goal:

    Research, development and application of esters of higher fatty acids as the ecological fuels for diesel engines with a high quality meeting prEN 14 214 or STN P 65 6530 on the basis of renewable domestic raw material under complex use of byproducts. New procedures for the preparation of esters from diverse vegetable oils and animal fats, new catalytic systems for their preparation, new types of esters with depressant effect, containing the branched chain alcohols. Ecological lubricants based on chemically modified fatty acids. Legislative documents to support the production of alternative fuels. New non traditional methods to prepare esters from oils and fats under enhanced yield of alkyl esters and reduced production of soap. Optimization of alkyl ester production aimed at the oils and fats modification before their transesterification. New types of catalysts for transesterification aimed at heterogeneous systems and enzyme catalysis. Expanding the range of usable oils and fats to find and use cheaper inputs for the reaction. Use of worn frying oils for the production of fatty acids esters, conditions for their recycling and mixing with other sources of acylglycerols, recovery the quality standard of used frying oils. Properties of esters with branched alkyls aiming to reduce the temperature of fuel filtrability. Study of the oxidizing and thermal stability of esters, development of assessment methods for them, study and preparation of suitable antioxidants. Study of low-temperature properties of esters, development and tests of depressants to improve the ester’s pumpability at low temperatures. Study of influence for the share of an ester component in the mixed fuel of esters with fossil hydrocarbons on the fuel properties and its performance and emission characteristics. Formulations for mixed fuels based on alkyl esters and hydrocarbons. Mixed fuel for diesel engine containing alkyl esters up to 5 % and study of lubrication properties of the fuel. Study of properties of motor oils with use of fuels containing esters. Operation of a car group using fuels with esters or mixed fuels, assessment of evaluation and performance characteristics. Development of simplified analytical methods for operational quality assessment of the alkyl esters production and for the quality control of outgoing acylglycerols focussed on the conversion, water content, content of partial acylglycerols and alkali metals. Development of ecological lubricants based on chemically modified higher fatty acids and their esters. Possible use of the organic layer being formed at the decomposition of the glycerol phase. Refining of raw glycerol obtained from the alkyl ester production towards a product with a glycerol content over 99.5%.

    Macroeconomic aspects of use of biogenic fuels. Economic analysis of cost, earnings and out turn of the production of biofuels in selected economic units. Comparison of cost, earnings and out turn of the production of classic fuels to the biofuels. Environmental effects from the production and use of biofuels. Theoretical framework for the implementation of instruments internalizing the environmental effects. Impact assessment of use of the financial and economic instruments on selected economic entities.

    Education and promotion of the ecological fuels from the domestic renewable sources. Economy and marketing strategy, legislation proposals and documents for the Slovak Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economics, and the Ministry of Environment for the forms of state support, subventions and tax reliefs for the cultivation of oilseeds and the production of alkyl esters. Promotion of the environmental benefits of biogenic fuels and reduction of gases causing the greenhouse effect. Popularization of an ambitious program of the EU in the field of renewable energy sources to cover 2 % of the fuel consumption by the biofuels in 2005.

    Highlighting the advantages of use of ecological fuels in the selected regions with their minimum impact on the environment (urban and water transportation, closed facilities, national parks and reserves etc.) and an easy biodegradability. Assurance of the political support to promote the biofuels at the market. Cooperation with teams dealing with a similar issues abroad and coordination of activities to disseminate information on biofuels. Support and assistance in the creation of economic conditions for cultivation oilseeds on set-aside land, on soils temporarily excluded from food production.

    Publishing research and development results in the scientific journals, the specialized press, at conferences and on Internet. Patent protection of inventions created in the context of the addressed issue. The arrangement of an international scientific conference at the end of project with presentation of the achieved results.